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Historically, extractive industries have also been a major driver of economic growth, particularly for now-advanced economies that benefitted during and after the Industrial Revolution. Currently, mineral resource extraction plays a dominant role in the economies of 81 countries that account for a quarter of global GDP, half of the world’s population and nearly 70 per cent of those living in
The COVID-19 pandemic has presented an abrupt, even if temporary, halt to some of these trends, and underscored systemic vulnerabilities in health, economic, social and other systems, including those related to energy and industry. Failure to transition quickly to more sustainable systems will perpetuate these vulnerabilities, while also jeopardizing the fight against climate change and