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Historically, extractive industries have also been a major driver of economic growth, particularly for now-advanced economies that benefitted during and after the Industrial Revolution. Currently, mineral resource extraction plays a dominant role in the economies of 81 countries that account for a quarter of global GDP, half of the world’s population and nearly 70 per cent of those living in
The 2030 Agenda and its Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) provide an ambitious and comprehensive framework that opens new perspectives for policymaking and international cooperation. Its integrated character highlights the linkages and complementarities that exist between different goals and targets. UNECE is supporting countries to address these key sustainable development challenges through
The COVID-19 pandemic has presented an abrupt, even if temporary, halt to some of these trends, and underscored systemic vulnerabilities in health, economic, social and other systems, including those related to energy and industry. Failure to transition quickly to more sustainable systems will perpetuate these vulnerabilities, while also jeopardizing the fight against climate change and
The world’s energy sector is undergoing a profound transition. This transition is driven by the need to expand access to clean energy in support of socio-economic development, especially in emerging economies, while at the same time limiting the impacts of climate change, pollution and other unfolding global environmental crises. Fundamentally this transition requires a shift from the use of
The multifaceted requirements of sustainable development are primarily dependent on the optimal and responsible use of natural resources.  A new paradigm of optimising resource efficiency and progressing towards a circular economy is required to realise the need for balanced development of natural resources. The United Nations Resource Management System (UNRMS) is being designed as a unifying
ECE Energy Series 58: Application of UNFC Case Studies 2019 (ECE ENERGY SERIES No. 58) (2019)This publication provides a series of case studies on various resource projects, including niobium, oil & gas, rare earth elements, thorium and uranium, from different countries. The case studies serve to
Guidelines for Application of the United Nations Framework Classification for Resources (UNFC) to Uranium and Thorium Resources (ECE ENERGY SERIES No. 55) (December 2017)This publication provides non-mandatory guidance for the application of the United Nations Framework Classification for Resources (UNFC) to uranium and thorium resources.
Coordinated Operations of Flexible Coal and Renewable Energy Power Plants: Challenges and Opportunities ENERGY SERIES No. 52 This report argues that coordinated operations of renewable energy and fossil fuel- red power plants could help increase reliability and eciency of the whole system. At the same time, given the inherent
Application of UNFC  to Nuclear Fuel Resources - Selected Case Studies (ECE ENERGY SERIES No. 46) (December 2015)This publication includes eight case studies that demonstrate the classification of uranium or thorium resources at different scales, with examples in Argentina, Brazil, China, India, Malawi, Niger and
United Nations Framework Classification – Sustainable Management of National Endowments (Booklet - December 2015)Ensuring reliable and affordable supplies of energy to support sustainable development is a challenge. Achieving this goal in an environmentally responsible manner is an even greater challenge. Strong,
Cleaner electricity production from fossil fuels - Booklet December 2015Electricity generation through the use of fossil fuels has been a foundational pillar for modern society. Over two thirds of the world’s electricity is generated using fossil fuels. The power sector was designed around fossil fuels
Carbon Capture and Storage – A Key to Climate Change Mitigation (Booklet - December 2015)If the world is to succeed in constraining CO2 emissions to levels consistent with a less than 2°C rise in global temperatures, then carbon capture and storage (CCS) will need to contribute about one-sixth of needed CO2 emission
This publication represents the final report of the UNFC Mapping Task Force, however it should be seen as an interim step in an on-going process. The Mapping Task Force reached several key conclusions and made some specific recommendations for due consideration by the Ad Hoc Group of Experts on Harmonization of Fossil Energy and Mineral Resources Terminology, which are outlined in this