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References for Forest Sector Outlook Study 2020-2040

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This file provides the references quoted in the Forest Sector Outlook Study, 2020-2040:

Abatzoglou, J. T. and Williams, A. P. (2016) ‘Impact of anthropogenic climate change on wildfire across western US forests’, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 113(42), pp. 11770–11775. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1607171113.

Adámek, M. et al. (2018) ‘Drivers of forest fire occurrence in the cultural landscape of Central Europe’, Landscape Ecology, 33(11), pp. 2031–2045. doi: 10.1007/s10980-018-0712-2.

American Wood Council (2018) AWC: Tall Mass Timber code changes get final approval. Available at:… (Accessed: 16 July 2020).

Boisvert-Marsh, L., Périé, C. and de Blois, S. (2014) ‘Shifting with climate? Evidence for recent changes in tree species distribution at high latitudes’, Ecosphere, 5(7), p. art83. doi: 10.1890/ES14-00111.1.

Bottero, A. et al. (2017) ‘Density-dependent vulnerability of forest ecosystems to drought’, Journal of Applied Ecology. Edited by H. Bugmann, 54(6), pp. 1605–1614. doi: 10.1111/1365-2664.12847.

Boulanger, Y. et al. (2013) ‘Fire regime zonation under current and future climate over eastern Canada’, Ecological Applications, 23(4), pp. 904–923. doi: 10.1890/12-0698.1.

Bowditch E et al. (2020) « What is Climate-Smart Forestry? A definition from a multinational collaborative process focused on mountain regions of Europe” Ecosystem Services, Volume 43, June 2020, 101113,

Bradbury, M., Peterson, M. N. and Liu, J. (2014) ‘Long-term dynamics of household size and their environmental implications’, Population and Environment, 36(1), pp. 73–84. doi: 10.1007/s11111-014-0203-6.

Breneman, S. and Richardson, D. (2019) ‘Tall wood buildings and the 2021 IBC: Up to 18 stories of mass timber’, WoodWorks Wood Solution Paper, WoodWorks - Wood Products Council. Available at:….

Brown, R. D. and Robinson, D. A. (2011) ‘Northern Hemisphere spring snow cover variability and change over 1922–2010 including an assessment of uncertainty’, The Cryosphere, 5(1), pp. 219–229. doi: 10.5194/tc-5-219-2011.

Brunet-Navarro, P., Jochheim, H. and Muys, B. (2017) ‘The effect of increasing lifespan and recycling rate on carbon storage in wood products from theoretical model to application for the European wood sector’, Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, 22(8), pp. 1193–1205. doi: 10.1007/s11027-016-9722-z.

Buermann, W. et al. (2018) ‘Widespread seasonal compensation effects of spring warming on northern plant productivity’, Nature, 562(7725), pp. 110–114. doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0555-7.

Bugmann, H. and Bigler, C. (2011) ‘Will the CO2 fertilization effect in forests be offset by reduced tree longevity?’, Oecologia, 165(2), pp. 533–544. doi: 10.1007/s00442-010-1837-4.

Buongiorno, J. and Johnston, C. (2018) ‘Potential effects of US protectionism and trade wars on the global forest sector’, Forest Science. Oxford University Press US, 64(2), pp. 121–128.

Buongiorno, J. and Zhu, S. (2018) ‘Using the Global Forest Products Model GFPM version 2017 (with BPMPD and base year 2015)’, Staff Paper Series # 88, Department of Forest and Wildlife Ecology, University of Wisconsin, Madison Wisconsin, pp. 1–37.

Buongiorno, J. et al. (2003) The Global Forest Products Model: Structure, Estimation, and Applications. Academic Press.

Bytnerowicz, A., Omasa, K. and Paoletti, E. (2007) ‘Integrated effects of air pollution and climate change on forests: A northern hemisphere perspective’, Environmental Pollution, 147(3), pp. 438–445. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2006.08.028.

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Charru, M. et al. (2017) ‘Recent growth changes in Western European forests are driven by climate warming and structured across tree species climatic habitats’, Annals of Forest Science, 74(2), p. 33. doi: 10.1007/s13595-017-0626-1.

Chi, J. et al. (2019) ‘The carbon balance of a managed boreal landscape measured from a tall tower in northern Sweden’, Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 274, pp. 29–41. doi: 10.1016/j.agrformet.2019.04.010.

Churkina, G. et al. (2020) ‘Buildings as a global carbon sink’, Nature Sustainability, 3(4), pp. 269–276. doi: 10.1038/s41893-019-0462-4.

Closset‐Kopp, D., Hattab, T. and Decocq, G. (2019) ‘Do drivers of forestry vehicles also drive herb layer changes (1970–2015) in a temperate forest with contrasting habitat and management conditions?’, Journal of Ecology. Edited by D. Edwards, 107(3), pp. 1439–1456. doi: 10.1111/1365-2745.13118.

Collins, M. N. et al. (2019) ‘Valorization of lignin in polymer and composite systems for advanced engineering applications – A review’, International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 131, pp. 828–849. doi: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2019.03.069.

Corbett, L. J., Withey, P., Lantz, V. A., and Ochuodho, T. O. (2016) ‘The economic impact of the mountain pine beetle infestation in British Columbia: provincial estimates from a CGE analysis’, Forestry: An International Journal of Forest Research, 89(1), pp. 100–105. Doi: 10.1093/forestry/cpv042.

Dai, A. (2013) ‘Increasing drought under global warming in observations and models’, Nature Climate Change, 3(1), pp. 52–58. doi: 10.1038/nclimate1633.

Dale, V. H. et al. (2010) ‘Modeling transient response of forests to climate change’, Science of The Total Environment, 408(8), pp. 1888–1901. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2009.11.050.

de Boer, H. J. et al. (2011) ‘Climate forcing due to optimization of maximal leaf conductance in subtropical vegetation under rising CO2’, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 108(10), pp. 4041–4046. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1100555108.

De Bruycker, R. et al. (2014) ‘Assessing the Potential of Crude Tall Oil for the Production of Green-Base Chemicals: An Experimental and Kinetic Modeling Study’, Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 53(48), pp. 18430–18442. doi: 10.1021/ie503505f.

Delzon, S. et al. (2013) ‘Field Evidence of Colonisation by Holm Oak, at the Northern Margin of Its Distribution Range, during the Anthropocene Period’, PLoS ONE. Edited by H. YH. Chen, 8(11), p. e80443. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0080443.

Destatis, Statistisches Bundesamt (2019. Land- und Forstwirtschaft, Fischerei. Fortwirtschaftliche Bodennutzung - Holzeinschlagsstatistik - Fachserie 3 Reihe 3.3.1 for 2018, available at:

Destatis, Statistisches Bundesamt (2020). Land- und Forstwirtschaft, Fischerei. Fortwirtschaftliche Bodennutzung - Holzeinschlagsstatistik - Fachserie 3 Reihe 3.3.1 for 2019, available at:

Dieler, J. et al. (2017) ‘Effect of forest stand management on species composition, structural diversity, and productivity in the temperate zone of Europe’, European Journal of Forest Research, 136(4), pp. 739–766. doi: 10.1007/s10342-017-1056-1.

Dobor, L. et al. (2020) ‘Is salvage logging effectively dampening bark beetle outbreaks and preserving forest carbon stocks?’, Journal of Applied Ecology. Edited by J. Moore, 57(1), pp. 67–76. doi: 10.1111/1365-2664.13518.

Doelman, J. C. et al. (2020) ‘Afforestation for climate change mitigation: Potentials, risks and trade‐offs’, Global Change Biology, 26(3), pp. 1576–1591. doi: 10.1111/gcb.14887.

Dyderski, M. K. et al. (2018) ‘How much does climate change threaten European forest tree species distributions?’, Global Change Biology, 24(3), pp. 1150–1163. doi: 10.1111/gcb.13925.

Ekolyst (2019) Kůrovcová kalamita dosáhla loni zcela extrémního rozsahu. Prognóza na letošek není příznivá, Available at:… (Accessed: 17 July 2020).

Environment and Climate Change Canada (2016) Pan-Canadian Framework on Clean Growth and Climate Change: Canada's plan to address climate change and grow the economy. Available at:….

European Commission (2013) ‘A new EU Forest Strategy: For forests and the forest-based sector’, Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions, Brussels. Available at:….

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Fann, N. et al. (2018) ‘The health impacts and economic value of wildland fire episodes in the U.S.: 2008–2012’, Science of The Total Environment, 610–611, pp. 802–809. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.08.024.

FAO (2005). ‘State of the World’s Forests: 2005.’ Tariffs and non-tariff measures in trade of forest products. P. 108-115. Available at Accessed 6 October 2020.

FAO (2018) ‘The State of the World’s Forests 2018 - Forest pathways to sustainable development’. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO). Available at:

FAO (2019) ‘The State of the World’s Biodiversity for Food and Agriculture’. Edited by J. Bélanger and D. Pilling. FAO Commission on Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture Assessments, p. 572.

FAO (2019) FAOSTAT forestry database. Forestry Production and trade. Available at:

FAO (2020a) ‘Global forest resources assessment 2020: Main Report’. Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations. Available at:

FAO (2020b) The State of the World’s Forests 2020 – Forests, biodiversity and people. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Available at:

FAO and Plan Bleu (2018) State of Mediterranean Forests 2018. Rome and Marseille: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and Plan Bleu, Regional Activity Center of UN Environment/Mediterranean Action Plan.

FAOSTAT (2021) Forestry Production and Trade. Available at: (Accessed: 22 January 2021).

Flannigan, M. et al. (2009) ‘Impacts of climate change on fire activity and fire management in the circumboreal forest’, Global Change Biology, 15(3), pp. 549–560. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2008.01660.x.

Forest Europe (2020) Adaptation to Climate Change in Sustainable Forest Management in Europe. Zvolen: Liaison Unit Bratislava.

Freer-Smith, P. et al. (2019) Plantation forests in Europe: challenges and opportunities.From Science to Policy,9. European Forest Institute. doi: 10.36333/fs09.

Friend, A. D. et al. (2014) ‘Carbon residence time dominates uncertainty in terrestrial vegetation responses to future climate and atmospheric CO 2’, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 111(9), pp. 3280–3285. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1222477110.

Gauthier, S. et al. (2015) ‘Boreal forest health and global change’, Science, 349(6250), pp. 819–822. doi: 10.1126/science.aaa9092.

Gaylord, M. L. et al. (2013) ‘Drought predisposes piñon-juniper woodlands to insect attacks and mortality’, New Phytologist, 198(2), pp. 567–578. doi: 10.1111/nph.12174.

Gazol, A. et al. (2017) ‘Impacts of droughts on the growth resilience of Northern Hemisphere forests: Forest growth resilience to drought’, Global Ecology and Biogeography, 26(2), pp. 166–176. doi: 10.1111/geb.12526.

Geng, A et al. (2019) Assessing the Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Potential of Harvested Wood Products Substitution in China, Environmental Science & Technology 2019 53 (3), 1732-1740, DOI: 10.1021/acs.est.8b06510, Avaialble at:

Girardin, M. P. et al. (2016) ‘No growth stimulation of Canada’s boreal forest under half-century of combined warming and CO 2 fertilization’, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 113(52), pp. E8406–E8414. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1610156113.

Gonçalves, A. C. and Sousa, A. M. (2017) ‘The Fire in the Mediterranean Region: A Case Study of Forest Fires in Portugal’, in Fuerst-Bjelis, B. (ed.) Mediterranean Identities - Environment, Society, Culture. InTech. Available at:….

Gregow, H. et al. (2011) ‘Combined occurrence of wind, snow loading and soil frost with implications for risks to forestry in Finland under the current and changing climatic conditions’, Silva Fennica, 45(1). doi: 10.14214/sf.30.

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Griscom, B. W. et al. (2017) ‘Natural climate solutions’, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 114(44), pp. 11645–11650. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1710465114.

Haarsma, R. J. et al. (2013) ‘More hurricanes to hit western Europe due to global warming’, Geophysical Research Letters, 40(9), pp. 1783–1788. doi: 10.1002/grl.50360.

Hale, S. E. et al. (2012) ‘Wind loading of trees: influence of tree size and competition’, European Journal of Forest Research, 131(1), pp. 203–217. doi: 10.1007/s10342-010-0448-2.

Halofsky, J. E., Peterson, D. L. and Harvey, B. J. (2020) ‘Changing wildfire, changing forests: the effects of climate change on fire regimes and vegetation in the Pacific Northwest, USA’, Fire Ecology, 16(1), p. 4. doi: 10.1186/s42408-019-0062-8.

Hanewinkel, M. et al. (2013) ‘Climate change may cause severe loss in the economic value of European forest land’, Nature Climate Change, 3(3), pp. 203–207. doi: 10.1038/nclimate1687.

Hanewinkel, M. et al. (2014) ‘Converting probabilistic tree species range shift projections into meaningful classes for management’, Journal of Environmental Management, 134, pp. 153–165. doi: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2014.01.010.

Henry, H. A. L. (2008) ‘Climate change and soil freezing dynamics: historical trends and projected changes’, Climatic Change, 87(3–4), pp. 421–434. doi: 10.1007/s10584-007-9322-8.

Holmes, T. P. (1991) ‘Price and welfare effects of catastrophic forest damage from southern pine beetle epidemics’, Forest Science. Oxford University Press, 37(2), pp. 500–516.

Holmes, T.P., K.L Abt, J.P. Prestemon (2008). The Economics of Forest Disturbances: Wildfires, Storms, and Invasive Species. Springer, 420 pages.

Hungate, B. A. (2003) ‘Atmospheric Science: Nitrogen and Climate Change’, Science, 302(5650), pp. 1512–1513. doi: 10.1126/science.1091390.

Hurmekoski, E. et al. (2018) ‘Diversification of the forest industries: role of new wood-based products’, Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 48(12), pp. 1417–1432. doi: 10.1139/cjfr-2018-0116.

IEA (2020) ‘OECD Total Balance (2018) and Non-OECD Total Balance (2018), IEA Sankey Diagram. Available at: (Accessed: 17 February 2021).

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