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About the Water Convention

The Convention on the Protection and Use of Transboundary Watercourses and International Lakes (Water Convention) was adopted in Helsinki in 1992 and entered into force in 1996.
The Convention is a unique legally binding instrument promoting the sustainable management of shared water resources, the implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals, the
Introduction video on the Water Convention, providing an overview of its functioning its institutional mechanism and the benefits of joining it is available:

in English:
in French:

prevention of conflicts, and the promotion of peace and regional integration.

The Water Convention requires Parties to prevent, control and reduce transboundary impact, use transboundary waters in a reasonable and equitable way and ensure their sustainable management. Parties bordering the same transboundary waters have to cooperate by entering into specific agreements and establishing joint bodies. As a framework agreement, the Convention does not replace bilateral and multilateral agreements for specific basins or aquifers; instead, it fosters their establishment and implementation, as well as further development.

The Convention was originally negotiated as a regional framework for the pan-European region. Following an amendment procedure, since March 2016 all UN Member States can accede to it. Chad and Senegal have become the first African Parties in 2018. Then, Ghana acceded in 2020 and was followed by Guinea-Bissau and Togo in 2021, by Cameroon in 2022, and Nigeria and The Gambia in 2023. Iraq acceded in March 2023 as the first country from the Middle East, Namibia in June 2023 as the first country from Southern Africa and Panama in July 2023 as the first country from Latin America. The accession of these countries offers new prospects for: enhanced transboundary cooperation globally, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa, the Middle East and Latin America; conflict prevention; and regional stability.

The Water Convention is a powerful tool to promote and operationalize the achievement of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and its SDGs. It directly supports implementation of target 6.5, which requests all countries to implement integrated water resources management, including through transboundary cooperation, as appropriate. The Convention and its programme of work are also relevant for other SDGs, such as all the other targets of goal, but also: goals 2, 7, 13, 15, 16, 17 and target 11.5.

Text of the Convention:      
Text of the Convention, as amended, along with decision VI/3 clarifying the accession procedure English French Russian
Authentic texts (as adopted in 1992) English French Russian
Text of the amendment (adopted in 2003) English French Russian
United Nations official translations Arabic Spanish  
Unofficial translations Portuguese
Read more about the Convention Convention brochures


Introduction video on the Water Convention, providing an overview of its functioning, its institutional mechanism, and the benefits of joining it, is available:
Want to know more about the Water Convention? Check the interviews of:
Ms. Sonja Koeppel, Secretary of the Water Convention, UNECE:
Ms. Sibylle Vermont, Deputy Head of Section Global Affairs in the International Affairs Division, Federal Office for the Environment, Switzerland and member of the Water Convention Bureau:
Mr. Niokhor Ndour, Director of management and planning of Water Resources, Ministry of Water and Sanitation, Senegal and
member of the Water Convention Bureau:


    Last update date: September 21, 2023