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Capacity building

Air pollution emissions have been reduced considerably in the UNECE region over the last decades, in part as a result of integrated air pollution management strategies that were developed jointly under the Convention and its protocols. However, the progress is still uneven across the region. In particular in Eastern, South-Eastern Europe, the Caucasus and Central Asia, the increase in energy production, industry growth and urban development is bound to raise emissions. 
To avoid damage to the environment, public health and the economy, adopting targets to reduce emissions and introducing measures to enforce them is important. Providing a framework to facilitate these measures, the Convention assists countries in formulating policy responses to the air pollution challenge. Ensuring the implementation and ratification of the Convention and its protocols within this region is imperative for the cohesiveness and effectiveness of the Convention. 
The latest amendments to the Convention’s key protocols – the instruments identifying specific measures to cut emission of air pollutants – took these needs into account by introducing flexibilities to enable accession of new Parties. The Convention’s long-term strategy and its work plan, as well as the action plan to involve countries in Eastern, South-Eastern Europe, the Caucasus and Central Asia in the work of the Convention highlight the need to assist these countries in the ratification and implementation of the Convention and its most recent protocols. The revised long-term strategy reconfirms this.
In 2010, the Executive Body, through decision 2010/17, established a coordinating group on the promotion of actions towards implementation of the Convention in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus and Central Asia, under the leadership of the Russian Federation. Through information exchange and capacity-building, the group aims to foster implementation of the Convention in countries of Eastern Europe, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
The assistance programme that is currently being undertaken with the support of several Parties (the European Union, Germany, the Netherlands, Norway, the Russian Federation, Sweden, and Switzerland) aims to raise the political profile of the Convention in the region; to encourage ratification of the Convention’s latest amended protocols; and to increase cooperation and exchange of information by involving countries in emissions reporting, monitoring and modelling activities under the Convention. The Netherlands, Norway, Sweden and Switzerland have contributed to the overall programme, ensuring secretariat resources and travel of participants, respectively.
A brochure on the capacity-building programme can be found here.
In line with the above-mentioned priorities, the following projects and activities have been already completed.
2020

The EECCA Coordinating Group meeting on 27 May and 16 October 2020 (virtual): In 2020, the EECCA Coordinating Group (CG) met twice remotely. The meetings, held on 27 May and 16 October, gathered 15 participants each.  Representatives of Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Republic of Moldova, Russian Federation, Ukraine and Uzbekistan exchanged information on the progress made on national air quality management and discussed proposals for the report on the review of the Gothenburg Protocol, the final version of which will be presented to the Executive Body at its session in December 2022. The needs for further capacity building and technical assistance were also discussed during the meetings.

Central Asia Regional Air Quality Management Workshop: Taking Action for Cleaner Air, at the invitation of US EPA (10-20 August) (virtual): The workshop provided a platform to share information on resources available to further air quality management goals in the countries and cities of Central Asia, to learn about key challenges and institutional capacities for air quality management from representatives of different Ministries, to provide an overview of selected topics in air quality management, and to facilitate discussion with participants to identify major sources of air pollution and exposed populations, as well as potential regulatory, technical, and financial capacity needs to improve air quality. The secretariat also shared the lessons learnt from the Air Convention as the most successful example of intergovernmental air quality governance in the region.

First part of workshops on emission inventories for the Republic of Moldova (6 November), Kyrgyzstan (4 December) and Kazakhstan (21 December) (virtual): The aim of these virtual workshops was to further improve emission reporting under the Convention. The training sessions focused on guidance for data collection to prepare for the second part of these workshops and on developing gridded aggregated NFR sector data (GNFR). Participants discussed the existing data set for the reporting period of 2020 and how to fill in data gaps. Recommendations were also provided on methodologies and required data for development of gridded emissions, so that participants could prepare for the next stage of a hands-on training. The second phase of these workshops, focusing on practical exercises on completing the reporting annexes under the Air Conventions, will be held in 2021.

Intermediate workshop for stakeholders in Kazakhstan to select a best scenario for ratification and develop a national action plan (11 November) (virtual): In June, the secretariat launched the project “Assessment and enhancement of Kazakhstan's national capacity to ratify the key protocols and development of a national action plan for ratification”. The project covers the following activities: a) assessment of current legal framework, analysis of gaps and identification of best scenarios for ratification of the protocols; b) economic assessment of selected scenario of ratification and implementation of the protocols; and c) development of a National Action Plan for ratification and implementation of the protocols. The activities are carried out in close cooperation with relevant stakeholders in Kazakhstan, prepared and supported by a group of international experts under the coordination of UNECE. The purpose of the interim workshop, held virtually on 11 November, was to present preliminary results of a gap analysis of national air quality legislation and to identify possible scenarios for accession to and implementation of the key protocols of the Air Convention. A final high-level round table to present and discuss the final draft of the national action plan with national authorities is tentatively scheduled for July 2021.

 
2019

Workshop on VOC installations: Requirements, Emission Monitoring, Best Available Techniques (11-12 November 2019), Minsk, Belarus
During the Workshop to Promote the Ratification of Protocols of the UNECE Air Convention with Focus on Countries in the EECCA Region, held in Berlin, (14-16 May 2019), the need for providing assistance and guidance to the EECCA experts on estimation and measurement of VOCs emissions was recognized. The workshop on VOCs therefore aimed to provide clear examples of methods and applications to correctly approach the issue of VOCs, in line with the Gothenburg Protocol provisions.

Workshop on improving emission inventories (21-25 October 2019), Yerevan, Armenia
Following a workshop on emission inventories in 2018, UNECE organized a follow-up workshop in Yerevan. The workshop aimed to improve the skills of national experts in developing national emission inventories in accordance with the requirements of the Convention. The workshop focused on the practical work with the country’s national data in relation to its priority activity sectors. The activity was funded by the Russian Federation.
High-level awareness-raising meeting and roundtable discussion on the analysis of national air quality legislation and National Action Plan (8 October 2019), Baku, Azerbaijan
UNECE organized a national round table to discuss domestic law on air pollution control in Baku, Azerbaijan. The purpose of the event was to raise the political profile of the Convention and increase awareness of the benefits of accession to its Protocols and to further assist Azerbaijan in aligning its national legislation with the provisions of the Protocols and determining the next steps towards ratification. High-level participants from the Ministries of Environment and several other Ministries and representatives from the private sector and civil society discussed the recommendations on the steps towards ratification of the key Protocols of the Convention. Participants concluded that ratification was feasible, but several steps on the way to ratification were still needed. The activity was co-funded by the European Union.

High-level awareness-raising meeting and roundtable discussion on the analysis of national air quality legislation and National Action Plan (25 September 2019), Yerevan, Armenia
UNECE organized a high-level level awareness-raising meeting in Armenia, which included a national round table to discuss domestic law on air pollution control. The purpose of the event was to raise the political profile of the Convention and increase awareness of the benefits of accession to its Protocols; to further assist Armenia in aligning national legislation with the provisions of the Protocols and determining the next steps towards ratification; and to highlight the Convention’s links and complementarity with the relevant European Union legislation, which Armenia plans to transpose into domestic law pursuant to its Partnership Agreement with the European Union. High-level participants from the Ministry of Environment and other Ministries as well as representatives from the private sector and civil society discussed the recommendations on the steps towards ratification of the key protocols of the Convention. Parties to the Convention also shared their experiences with ratification and representatives from the European Union presented on the links between the Convention and European Union legislation. The activity was co-funded by the European Union.
Workshop on improving emission inventories (23-27 September 2019), Baku, Azerbaijan
Following a workshop on emission inventories in 2017, UNECE organized a follow-up workshop in Baku. The workshop aimed to improve the skills of national experts in developing national emission inventories in accordance with the requirements of the Convention. The workshop focused on the practical work with the country’s national data in relation to its priority activity sectors. The activity was funded by the Russian Federation.
Workshop to Promote the Ratification of Protocols of the UNECE Air Convention with Focus on Countries in the EECCA Region (14-16 May 2019), Berlin, Germany
The concept of “Best available techniques” refers to the most effective and advanced practices and methods used under economically and technically viable conditions in relevant industrial sectors to reduce emissions and the impact on the environment. Experts from various countries of the UNECE region and beyond shared information on existing approaches to BAT implementation and examples of application in different sectors. Industry representatives gave practical examples of BAT implementation (e.g. process-integrated and end-of-pipe techniques) in existing plants. Participants also discussed obstacles for implementation of BATs. The activity was funded by Germany and the European Union.

2018

Workshop on improving emission inventories (13-15 November 2018), Tashkent, Uzbekistan
Following a workshop on emission inventories in 2015, UNECE organized a follow-up workshop in Tashkent. The workshop aimed to improve the skills of national experts in developing national emission inventories in accordance with the requirements of the Convention. The workshop focused on the practical work with the country’s national data in relation to its priority activity sectors. The activity was funded by the Russian Federation.
Workshop on gridded emissions (29-31 October 2018), Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
To assist the Republic of Moldova in developing gridded emissions, UNECE organized a workshop in Chisinau. The training programme for the workshop focused on both theoretical and practical work, covering a number of activities in various sectors. In particular, participants discussed the methods and tools used to collect and process relevant data for the calculation of grid emissions and emission projections. This was followed by practical work and interactive discussions and exchanges. The activity was funded by the European Union.
Subregional workshop on the GAINS model for EECCA countries (15-19 October 2018), Laxenburg, Austria
 To assist countries in analyzing their air pollutant emission data and understanding how to develop their emission scenarios, UNECE organized a subregional workshop for EECCA countries together with the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA).
The workshop included hands-on training sessions on the GAINS (Greenhouse Gas – Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies) model – a model that was used to support the negotiations for the revision of the Protocol to Abate Acidification, Eutrophication and Ground-level Ozone (Gothenburg Protocol) under the Convention. The model can help assess emission reduction potentials in different countries and regions. It can simulate costs, health and ecosystems benefits of different emission control measures, analyze cost-effectiveness of measures to achieve user-defined policy targets and assess costs and benefits to maximize the benefits of policy interventions.
The five-day in-depth training helped participants in understanding how to set national emission reduction targets for 2020 and beyond, which is a necessary step in the ratification process of the Gothenburg Protocol.
The workshop was funded by the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety by the Advisory Assistance Programme for environmental protection in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe, the Caucasus and Central Asia and other countries neighbouring the European Union (AAP). It was supervised by the Federal Environment Agency (Umweltbundesamt, UBA).
High-level awareness-raising meeting and roundtable discussion to encourage ratification (3 October 2018) in Tbilisi, Georgia
The purpose of the event was to raise the political profile of the Convention and increase awareness of the benefits of accession to its Protocols; to further assist Georgia in aligning national legislation with the provisions of the Protocols and determining the next steps towards ratification; and to highlight the Convention’s links and complementarity with the relevant European Union legislation, which Georgia plans to transpose into domestic law pursuant to its Association Agreement with the European Union.
High-level participants from the Ministry of Environment and other Ministries, as well as representatives from the private sector and civil society, discussed the recommendations on the steps towards ratification of the key protocols of the Convention. Parties to the Convention also shared their experiences with ratification and representatives from the European Union presented on the links between the Convention and European Union legislation. The activity was funded by the European Union.
Workshop on improving emission inventories (18-21 September 2018) and national roundtable meeting to encourage ratification (25 September 2018) in Kyiv, Ukraine
The workshop aimed to assist Ukraine in improving its air pollutant emission inventories in accordance with the Convention’s requirements. The purpose of the national round table was to discuss domestic law on air pollution control and to raise the political profile of the Convention and increase awareness of the benefits of accession to its Protocols. It was also geared towards further assisting Ukraine in aligning its national legislation with the provisions of the Protocols and determining the next steps towards ratification. This activity was funded by the European Union.
Meeting of the Coordinating Group and in the joint workshop with the Task Force on Techno-Economic Issues under the Convention (19-20 September 2018) in St. Petersburg, Russian Federation
Meeting participants discussed the status of implementation of the Convention in the represented countries. During the joint workshop with the Task Force on Techno-Economic Issues (TFTEI), task force members gave presentations on the guidance documents on VOC emissions accounting, the ERICCa (Emissions Reduction Investment and Cost Calculation Methodology) tool, the TFTEI-managed Clearing House on Best Available Techniques (BAT), and on the guidance document on small combustion and residential fuel burning that is currently under preparation. The activity was funded by the Russian Federation.
Workshop on emission inventories (9-11 July 2018) in Dushanbe, Tajikistan
The workshop aimed to improve the skills of national experts in developing national emission inventories in accordance with the requirements of the Convention. The workshop focused on the practical work with the country’s national data in relation to its priority activity sectors. The activity was funded by the Russian Federation.
Follow-up workshop on emission inventories (26-28 June 2018) in Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan
As a follow-up to a workshop in Kyrgyzstan in 2016, UNECE organized a second workshop on emission inventories in Bishkek (26–28 June 2018).   
International experts assisted national experts to compare existing national methodologies to calculate emissions with internationally agreed methodologies under the UNECE Air Convention. Working with national data sets, experts calculated emissions from key source categories, which will help Kyrgyzstan comply with the emissions data reporting obligations under the Convention. The activity was funded by the Russian Federation.
Follow-up workshop on emission inventories (6-8 June 2018) in Yerevan, Armenia
Following up on a workshop in Armenia in 2016, UNECE organized a second workshop in Yerevan (6–8 June 2018). During the Yerevan workshop on emission inventories, national experts compared existing national methodologies to calculate emissions with internationally agreed methodologies under the UNECE Air Convention. Working with national data sets, experts calculated emissions from key source categories. This will help Armenia comply with the emissions data reporting obligations under the Convention. The activity was funded by the Russian Federation.
Workshop for EECCA countries at the meeting of the Task Force on Emission Inventories and Projections (TFEIP) (Sofia, Bulgaria, 25-27 April 2018)
At this year’s meeting of the Task Force (Sofia, Bulgaria, 25-27 April 2018), experts discussed questions related to verification of emission estimates, experiences in emission inventory developments, and emissions from sectors, such as combustion and industry, transport, and agriculture and nature.
In addition, the meeting featured a workshop for participants from Eastern Europe, the Caucasus and Central Asia to assist Parties with their inventories, projections and scenario development. Workshop facilitators provided a hands-on training on projections and scenarios and worked with participants on their national datasets. The results of the discussions and the training can help Parties refine their data, which in turn makes it a more reliable source for policymakers to base their policy decisions on. The activity was funded by the Russian Federation. 

Clean Air for a Sustainable Future - 6th Saltjöbaden workshop (Gothenburg, Swerden, 18-21 March 2018)
The workshop included sessions on clean cities, clean air globally, the way forward in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus and Central Asia, air pollution effects on ecosystems and the link to climate, and sectors, sources and solutions for further emission reductions. The workshop was funded by Sweden.

2017

Roundtable on results of national legislation analysis (27 November 2017) and workshop on emission inventories (28-30 November 2017) in Baku, Azerbaijan

UNECE organized a round table in Baku on 27 November to present and discuss the results of the analysis of the national legislation on air quality management and the recommendations on the steps towards ratification of the Convention’s key protocols. Representatives of several ministries and state-owned enterprises participated in the discussion. Participants discussed recommendations on possible adjustments of the legislation to introduce Best Available Techniques (BATs) and on further steps for ratification and implementation of the Convention’s key protocols. In addition to the round table, UNECE organized a workshop to support Azerbaijan in improving its air pollutant emission inventories in accordance with the Convention’s requirements (Baku, 28–30 November 2017). The legislation analysis was funded by the European Union and the workshop on emission inventories was funded by the Russian Federation.

Roundtable on results of national legislation analysis (24 October 2017) and workshop on emission inventories (25-26 October 2017) in Dushanbe, Tajikistan

To encourage ratification of the Convention and its key protocols by Tajikistan, UNECE organized a round table in Dushanbe on 24 October to present and discuss the results of the analysis of the national legislation on air quality management and the recommendations on the steps towards ratification. Representatives of the Committee on Environment Protection, several ministries and non-governmental organizations participated in the discussion.  Further to the round table, UNECE organized a workshop to support Tajikistan in developing its air pollutant emission inventories in accordance with the Convention’s requirements (Dushanbe, 25–26 October 2017). The workshop focused on the practical work with the country’s national data in relation to its priority activity sectors. The legislation analysis was funded by the European Union and the workshop on emission inventories was funded by the Russian Federation.

Consultation meeting on reporting requirements under the Convention in Almaty, Kazakhstan (28-29 June 2017)

Following the workshop in 2015, the aim of this seminar was to support the improvement and maintenance of national air emissions inventories in line with reporting obligations under the UNECE Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution. During the seminar, participants were introduced to the main requirements of the reporting guidelines under the Convention. In particular, the seminar focused on calculation gridded emission data, emission projection and the preparation of the Informative Inventory Report (IIR). The activity was funded by the Russian Federation.

Workshop on emission inventories and projections in Tbilisi, Georgia (28-30 June, 2017)

The training programme for this workshop focused on both theoretical and practical work, covering a number of activities in various sectors. In particular, participants discussed the methods and tools used to collect and process relevant data for the calculation of grid emissions and emission projections. This was followed by practical work on activities covering various sectors, as well as interactive discussions and exchanges. the activity was funded by the European Union.

2016

Consultation meeting on preparation of inventory reports under the Convention in Yerevan, Armenia (10-14 October 2016)

In the course of the training workshop, participants gained insight on emissions calculation techniques described in the  ЕМЕP/ЕEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook. A special focus was on the preparation of the Informative Inventory Report (IIR). The activity was funded by the Russian Federation.

Subregional Workshop "Get your right to a healthy community" in Minsk, Belarus (19-21 September 2016)

The three-day event aimed to promote the implementation and ratification of the Protocol on Pollutant Release and Transfer Registers (PRTRs), also through explaining the synergies with the Air Convention and its protocols in data collecting and reporting. Representatives of authorities from Eastern Europe, the Caucasus and Central Asia responsible for PRTRs, air quality, chemical and waste management, and environmental protection, as well as representatives of civil society and intergovernmental organizations, and international PRTR experts shared knowledge, learned from each other and discussed solutions to existing deficiencies in relation to the implementation and use of PRTRs. Participants had the opportunity to share experiences gained through implementing PRTRs in different countries and learn how better to deal with the implementation of PRTRs in their own countries and to use synergies with other instruments, such as the Air Convention and its protocols. The activity was funded by the European Union.

Roundtable discussion to present the results of the legislation analysis in Astana, Kazakhstan (8 September 2016)

To encourage ratification of the Convention’s key protocols by Kazakhstan, UNECE organized a round table in Astana to present and discuss the results of the analysis of the national legislation on air quality management and the recommendations on the steps towards ratification. The results of the analysis and the recommendations were discussed with representatives of the Ministry of Energy, its Committee for Environmental regulation and control, KazHydromet, the Environmental Information and Analytical Centre under the Ministry, “Zhasyl Damu” institute,  the Ministry of Healthcare, the Ministry of Agriculture, the Ministry of Investments and Development and the Committee for Emergencies under the Ministry of Interior. The activity was funded by the European Union.

Workshop on best available techniques, organized by the Task Force on Techno-economic Issues in Berlin, Germany (20 - 22 April 2016)

workshop to promote understanding and implementation of best available techniques (BAT) across the UNECE region with particular focus on countries in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus and Central Asia was organized by the Convention’s Task Force on Techno-Economic Issues (TFTEI) in Berlin (20- 22 April 2016). “Best available techniques” refers to the most effective and advanced practices and methods used under economically and technically viable conditions in relevant industrial sectors to reduce emissions and the impact on the environment. Experts from various countries of the region shared information on existing approaches to BAT implementation and examples of application in different sectors. A clearinghouse accessible in English and Russian has been developed under the Task Force to provide a platform for Parties and experts to share information on existing and emerging technologies to abate emissions of various pollutants from both stationary and mobile sources and to provide feedback. The workshop participants discussed the progress and main challenges in BAT implementation in their countries. They also identified needs for support from other Parties in order to facilitate the progress. The activity was funded Germany.

Roundtable on results of national legislation analysis (12 April 2016) and workshop on emission inventories (13–15 April 2016) in Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan 

To encourage ratification of the Convention’s key protocols by Kyrgyzstan, UNECE organized a round table in Bishkek on 12 April to present and discuss the results of the analysis of the national legislation on air quality management and the recommendations on the steps towards ratification. Representatives of the State Agency on Environment Protection and Forestry, several ministries, as well as companies participated in the discussion. Further to the round table, UNECE organized a workshop to support Kyrgyzstan in improving its air pollutant emission inventories in accordance with the Convention’s requirements (13–15 April 2016). The workshop focused on the practical work with the country’s national data in relation to its priority activity sectors. The activity was funded by the Russian Federation.

2015

Workshops on emission inventories in Yerevan, Armenia (2-4 June 2015) and in Almaty, Kazakhstan (16-18 June 2015)

For both workshops, knowledge sharing and a vivid exchange of experiences resulted in identifying recommendations and key steps for further developing air quality inventories. Focusing on the energy sector and industrial processes, participants recognized the importance of maintaining an air quality emission inventory, not only for the purpose of reporting under the Convention, but also for formulating national policies and measures, for various projection and modelling studies, for the assessment of impacts on health, economy and environment, and for the evaluation of energy efficiency measures. In particular, participants pointed out the importance of coordinating and harmonizing data streams used by the teams of experts working on greenhouse gas and air quality emission inventories. It was acknowledged that the best international practice is to have the same team of experts working both on air quality and greenhouse gases emission inventories. The activities were funded by the European Union.

Workshop on emission inventories (19-21 May 2015) and roundtable on results of national legislation analysis in Tashkent, Uzbekistan (22 May 2015) 

Following a first workshop in 2013, a group of national experts representing various institutions compared existing national methodologies to calculate emissions with internationally agreed methodologies under the Convention, in particular for the energy sector and agriculture. Working with national data sets, experts calculated ammonia emissions from agriculture for the first time. It was concluded that available national data is sufficient for developing good-quality and accurate emission inventories.

A round table on 22 May presented the results of the analysis of the national legislation on air quality management with respect to the Convention’s requirements. Participants from parliament, the State Committee for Nature Protection and several ministries, as well as representatives from state-owned enterprises, discussed the recommendations on the steps towards ratification of the Convention. It was agreed to take these recommendations into account in the ongoing revision of the national law on air protection. The activities were funded by the European Union.

2014

Workshop on emission inventories in Baku, Azerbaijan (11-13 November 2014)

The workshop brought together national experts representing the Ministry of Ecology and Natural Resources with its Scientific Research Centre on Technical Regulatory Acts, the Ministry of Energy, the State Statistics Committee, the Ministry of Transport, as well as the State Oil Company and ‘Azerenergy’ JSC. The event was organized in order to strengthen the ratification and implementation of the Convention and its key protocols in Azerbaijan. The sessions were prepared and facilitated by international experts from the EMEP Centre on Emission Inventories and Projections (CEIP) and included the following aspects: reporting requirements under the Convention, national inventory system (key elements, legal framework, synergies with GHG inventories), the structure of Informative Inventory Reports, introduction to emissions gridding and reporting of large-point sources, key category analysis, quality assurance/quality control. The workshop programme was in particular focused on the energy sector and fugitive emissions, in accordance with the request of the Minister of Ecology and Natural Resources of the Republic of Azerbaijan. The activity was funded by the European Union.

Workshop on emission inventories in Tbilisi, Georgia (21-23 October 2014)

The workshop was organized with the aim to support Georgia in the ratification and implementation of the key Convention’s protocols in accordance with the needs expressed by its Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources Protection. International experts from the EMEP Centre on Emission Inventories and Projections (CEIP) prepared and facilitated the workshop sessions. The workshop helped raise awareness among national experts, in particular in relation to reporting requirements under the Convention and key aspects pertaining to national inventory system (key elements, legal framework, etc.). The workshop also provided training to national experts to enhance their skills in preparing the Informative Inventory Report (IIR) and to improve their understanding of emissions gridding and key category analysis. The experts discussed the categories reported under the industrial processes by Georgia and compiled the information on large-point sources for subsequent inclusion in their reports. The activity was funded by the European Union.

Training on gridded data and emission projections, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova (5-6 June 2014)

The training was organized upon request by the Ministry of Environment of the Republic of Moldova with the aim to provide an overview of the requirements for gridding and projections reporting as defined in the Guidelines for reporting under the Convention and showcased in the EMEP/EEA Air Pollutant Emission Inventory Guidebook. The training also looked at the results of work done by other Parties/institutions and identified the data needs and software tools to be employed both for gridding and projections. National experts from various institutions (State Ecological Inspectorate, Institute of Ecology and Geography, State Hydrometeorological Service, Institute of Power Engineering, etc.) participated in the training. The activity was funded by the European Union.

2013 and before

Workshop “Particulate matter: the impact on health and development of national emission inventories”, Tashkent, Uzbekistan (20-21 November 2013)

The workshop brought together national environmental, emission, and public health experts and representatives of the industrial sector in Uzbekistan to discuss the impact of particulate matter (PM) on health. The workshop also took a look at the current practice of emissions monitoring and reporting in the country. International experts shared information on existing experience related to PM emission inventories development and on methods and tools used. Workshop participants developed recommendations on further steps to harmonize the national inventory system with the Convention’s requirements.

Joint project of Belarus, Kazakhstan, and the Russian Federation: “Facilitating the implementation and ratification of the protocols of the Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution in Eastern Europe, Caucasus and Central Asia – Elaboration of national air pollutant emission inventory framework” (2012-2013)

The trilateral project funded by the Government of the Russian Federation provided assistance to partner countries in setting the methodological and technical framework for compiling air pollutant emission inventories in accordance with the requirements of the Convention and its protocols.  The key accomplishments of the project include an overview of prioritized anthropogenic air pollution sources by activity sectors and the work plans for compiling pilot air pollutant emission inventories in accordance with the EMEP/EEA Air Pollutant Emission Inventory Guidebook and the EMEP Emission Reporting Guidelines.

Support to the Implementation of the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution in Moldova (2009-2011)

The objective of the project was to promote implementation of the Convention in the Republic of Moldova (mainly, the provisions of the Gothenburg Protocol), to compile a high quality national emission inventory in accordance with the requirements of the EMEP/EEA Air Pollutant Emission Inventory Guidebook and the EMEP Emission Reporting Guidelines as well as to build capacity for integrated assessment modelling. The project was funded by the Czech Republic.

Implementation and Ratification of the Protocol on Heavy Metals, the Protocol on Persistent Organic Pollutants and the Gothenburg Protocol (2008-2011).

The project to support the implementation of the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution in Western Balkan countries, which was funded by the Netherlands and coordinated by UNECE, was completed with following major outputs: Albania, Montenegro, Serbia and the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (fYROM) developed their national action plans for the implementation and ratification of the three most recent protocols of the Convention; in addition to that, the fYROM deposited its instrument of ratification in December 2010.

Capacity Building for Air Quality Management and the Application of Clean Coal Combustion Technologies in Central Asia (CAPACT project), 2004-2008

The objective of the project was to strengthen the capacity of air quality management institutions in Central Asia to implement the Convention and its protocols as well as to promote the application of appropriate clean coal combustion technologies for heat and power generation from solid fuels.